Gould R.F. (ed.)'s Equilibrium Concepts in Natural Water Systems PDF

By Gould R.F. (ed.)

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Makes it more uniform. , a filtered saturated salt solution). In this way, the introduction of new impurities along with the precipitating agent is avoided. The precipitating agent is used in an amount which will precipitate the desired product completely without throwing out the impurities. After the product has separated completely, it is filtered with suction and washed on the funnel with a salt solution of the same concentration present in the mixture after precipitation. Th,us, if in the precipitation process, an aqueous solution was mixed with an equal volume of saturated salt solution, then a mixture of equal 38 INTERMEDIATES volumes of saturated salt solution and water is used for washing the precipitate.

Which of the three isomers will be formed in any particular case depends, to a small degree, on the nature of the entering group and on the specific reaction conditions, but it depends chiefly on the nature of the substituent already present. According to this "directing" or "orienting" influence, substituents may be divided into two classes. Groups7 in Class 1 include alkyl, aryl (diphenyl bond, halogen, —OH, —OR, —O—acyl, —NH 2 , —NHR, —NR 2 , —NH—acyl, —NR—acyl, —N=N—, and others. These groups direct an incoming substituent exclusively, or nearly so, 7 R = alkyl or aryl.

Frequently, the solvent of crystallization is driven off below the melting point and does not affect the latter. In other cases, however, an apparent melting, or solution in the solvent of crystallization, occurs far below the true melting point. A well known example of this behavior from inorganic chemistry is afforded by soda crystals which melt very easily in their water of crystallization. In organic chemistry, it is mainly the high molecular compounds, such as those of the triphenylmethane type, which stubbornly retain solvents of crystallization.

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Equilibrium Concepts in Natural Water Systems by Gould R.F. (ed.)


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